Title:   China's Imperial Bureaucracy

Speaker:   H.R. Spendelow


  1. distinction between the "Inner" and "Outer" Courts
  2. basic structures of the central government from the Sui/Tang
  3. methods and institutions for exercising central control over the countryside
  4. personnel, recruitment, and the "examination system"


  1. Brunnert, H.S. and V.V. Hagelstrom.  Present Day Political Organization of China (Foochow/Fuzhou, 15 August 1911)
  2. the generalist/specialist dichotomy, as interpreted by Tom Lehrer (1928- )


  1. Franke, Wolfgang.  The Reform and Abolition of the Traditional Chinese Examination System (Harvard, 1960)
  2. Miyazaki, Ichisada.  China's Examination Hell: The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China (Yale, 1981)
  3. Chaffee, John W.  The Thorny Gates of Learning in Sung China: A Social History of Examinations (Albany: SUNY Press, 1995)


  1. [tbd]